• Knee Osteoarthritis (OA), also known as degenerative joint disease, is typically the result of wear and tear and progressive loss of articular cartilage. It is most common in elderly women and men.
  • Knee osteoarthritis can be divided into two types, primary and secondary.
  • Primary osteoarthritis is articular degeneration without any apparent underlying reason.
  • Secondary osteoarthritis is the consequence of either an abnormal concentration of force across the joint as with post-traumatic causes or abnormal articular cartilage, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Osteoarthritis is typically a progressive disease that may eventually lead to disability.
  • The intensity of the clinical symptoms may vary from each individual. However, they typically become more severe, more frequent, and more debilitating over time.



  • The symptoms vary from person to person and they worsen eventually with time.

The most common symptoms are:

  1. Pain: Affected joints might hurt during or after movement.
  2. Stiffness: Joint stiffness might be most noticeable upon awakening or after being inactive.
  3. Tenderness: Your joint might feel tender when you apply light pressure to or near it.
  4. Loss of flexibility: You might not be able to move your joint through its full range of motion.
  5. Grating sensation: You might feel a grating sensation when you use the joint, and you might hear popping or crackling.
  6. Swelling: This might be caused by soft tissue inflammation around the joint.


  • Osteoarthritis cannot be reversed, but correct treatment can reduce pain and help you move better.
  • Physical Therapy or physiotherapy plays an important role in pain management rehabilitation.

It Includes:

A) IASTM Muscle Release:

  1. It is an acronym for – Instrumental Assisted Soft Tissue Mobilisation.
  2. It is believed that pain is never due to the changes in the bone, it’s due to the muscle.
  3. As there is wear and tear of bones, there are many biomechanical changes in the muscles.This causes an overuse of some muscles and underuse of some muscles creating an imbalance between the groups of muscles.
  4. The muscles that are overused form these adhesions in the length of their course gradually worsening and causing pain.
  5. This hampers our activity of daily living.
  6. These muscles should be released with the help of certain instruments.It helps in reducing pain and regaining blood circulation to those groups of muscles.

B)Exercise Therapy:

  1. OA of the knee joint causes swelling around the knee joint.
  2. Exercises should be done for recruiting the correct muscle and reducing the swelling.
  3. Then activating the stabilizer muscles is important to maintain the joint integrity.
  4. Then owing on to strengthening of the muscles for preventing further injury to the joint.


C)Muscle taping:

  1. This is the technique used for inhibiting the overused muscle.
  2. Taping plays a major role in placebo.
  3. Tapes also contain special components like menthol, that help to reduce pain.
  4. Taping can also be done in a pattern to reduce swelling.
  5. It supports the joint and gives a cushioning effect for the joint.

D)Dry Needling:

  1. It is a technique used to release the retinaculum of the knee joint that is overused due to stress on the joint.
  2. There is immediate relief in pain and improvement in the range of motion.

E)Lifestyle Modification:

  1. Few changes in lifestyle brings a lot of difference in pain management.
  2. Weight gain plays an important role in knee pain.
  3. Diet including good protein level and vitamins is important.
  4. Footwear modification should be done to reduce stress on the knee joint.